Monthly Archives: November 2011

(CoPas) Forensic Engineering

Bismillahirrohmanirrohiim.Ilmu Forensik mengalami perkembangan yang sangat pesat.
Istilah forensik tidak lagi hanya milik ilmu kedokteran. Tapi kini ada PSIKOLOGI FORENSIK dan yang lagi ngetrend ada TEKNIK FORENSIK atau FORENSIC ENGINEERING.
Berikut penjelasan yang saya kutip/salin dari WIKIPEDIA.

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Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally the purpose of a Forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents.

History

As the field of engineering has evolved over time so has the field of forensic engineering. With the prevalence of liability lawsuits in the late 1900’s the use of forensic engineering as a means to determine culpability spread in the courts. Dr. Edmond Locard (1877â��1966) was a pioneer in forensic science who formulated the basic principle of forensic science: “Every contact leaves a trace”. This became known as Locard’s exchange principle.

Investigation

Vital to the field of forensic engineering is the process of investigating and collecting data related to the materials, products, structures or components that failed. This involves inspections, collecting evidence, measurements, developing models, obtaining exemplar products, and performing experiments. Often testing and measurements are conducted in an Independent testing laboratory or other reputable unbiased laboratory.

Analysis

FMEA and fault tree analysis methods also examine product or process failure in a structured and systematic way, in the general context of safety engineering. However, all such techniques rely on accurate reporting of failure rates, and precise identification, of the failure modes involved.

There is some common ground between forensic science and forensic engineering, such as scene of crime and scene of accident analysis, integrity of the evidence and court appearances. Both disciplines make extensive use of optical and scanning electron microscopes, for example. They also share common use of spectroscopy (infra-red, ultra-violet and nuclear magnetic resonance) to examine critical evidence. Radiography using X-rays or neutrons is also very useful in examining thick products for their internal defects before destructive examination is attempted. Often, however, a simple hand lens to reveal the cause of a particular problem.

Trace evidence is sometimes an important factor in reconstructing the sequence of events in an accident. For example, tire burn marks on a road surface can enable vehicle speeds to be estimated, when the brakes were applied and so on. Ladder feet often leave a trace of movement of the ladder during a slipaway, and may show how the accident occurred. When a product fails for no obvious reason, SEM and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) performed in the microscope can reveal the presence of aggressive chemicals that have left traces on the fracture or adjacent surfaces. Thus an acetal resin water pipe joint suddenly failed and caused substantial damages to a building in which it was situated. Analysis of the joint showed traces of chlorine, indicating a stress corrosion cracking failure mode. The failed fuel pipe junction mentioned above showed traces of sulfur on the fracture surface from the sulfuric acid, which had initiated the crack.

Forensic materials engineering involves methods applied to specific materials, such as metals, glasses, ceramics, composites and polymers.

Examples

Failed fuel pipe at right from a road traffic accident

Close-up of the broken fuel pipe from a road traffic accident

Close-up of the broken fuel pipe

The broken fuel pipe shown at left caused a serious accident when diesel fuel poured out from a van onto the road. A following car skidded and the driver was seriously injured when she collided with an oncoming lorry. Scanning electron microscopy or SEM showed that the nylon connector had fractured by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) due to a small leak of battery acid. Nylon is susceptible to hydrolysis when in contact with sulfuric acid, and only a small leak of acid would have sufficed to start a brittle crack in the injection moulded nylon 6,6 connector by SCC. The crack took about 7 days to grow across the diameter of the tube, hence the van driver should have seen the leak well before the crack grew to a critical size. He did not, thereby resulting in the accident. The fracture surface showed a mainly brittle surface with striations indicating progressive growth of the crack across the diameter of the pipe. Once the crack had penetrated the inner bore, fuel started leaking onto the road.

The nylon 6,6 had been attacked by the following reaction, which was catalysed by the acid: Amide hydrolysis.png

Diesel fuel is especially hazardous on road surfaces because it forms a thin oily film that cannot be easily seen by drivers. It is akin to black ice in lubricity, so skids are common when diesel leaks occur. The insurers of the van driver admitted liability and the injured driver was compensated.

Applications

Most manufacturing models will have a forensic component that monitors early failures to improve quality or efficiencies. Insurance companies use forensic engineers to prove liability or nonliability. Most engineering disasters (structural failures such as bridge and building collapses) are subject to forensic investigation by engineers experienced in forensic methods of investigation. Rail crashes, aviation accidents, and some automobile accidents are investigated by forensic engineers in particular where component failure is suspected. Furthermore, appliances, consumer products, medical devices, structures, industrial machinery, and even simple hand tools such as hammers or chisels can warrant investigations upon incidents causing injury or property damages. The failure of medical devices is often safety-critical to the user, so reporting failures and analysing them is particularly important. The environment of the body is complex, and implants must both survive this environment, and not leach potentially toxic impurities. Problems have been reported with breast implants, heart valves, and catheters, for example.

Failures that occur early in the life of a new product are vital information for the manufacturer to improve the product. New product development aims to eliminate defects by testing in the factory before launch, but some may occur during its early life. Testing products to simulate their behavior in the external environment is a difficult skill, and may involve accelerated life testing for example. The worst kind of defect to occur after launch is a safety-critical defect, a defect that can endanger life or limb. Their discovery usually leads to a product recall or even complete withdrawal of the product from the market. Product defects often follow the bathtub curve, with high initial failures, a lower rate during regular life, followed by another rise due to wear-out. National standards, such as those of ASTM and the British Standards Institute, and International Standards can help the designer in increasing product integrity.

Historic examples

There are many examples of forensic methods used to investigate accidents and disasters, one of the earliest in the modern period being the fall of the Dee bridge at Chester, England. It was built using cast iron girders, each of which was made of three very large castings dovetailed together. Each girder was strengthened by wrought iron bars along the length. It was finished in September 1846, and opened for local traffic after approval by the first Railway Inspector, General Charles Pasley. However, on 24 May 1847, a local train to Ruabon fell through the bridge. The accident resulted in five deaths (three passengers, the train guard, and the locomotive fireman) and nine serious injuries. The bridge had been designed by Robert Stephenson, and he was accused of negligence by a local inquest.

Although strong in compression, cast iron was known to be brittle in tension or bending, yet, on the day of the accident, the bridge deck was covered with track ballast to prevent the oak beams supporting the track from catching fire. Stephenson took this precaution because of a recent fire on the Great Western Railway at Uxbridge, London, where Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s bridge caught fire and collapsed. This act imposed a heavy extra load on the girders supporting the bridge, and probably exacerbated the accident.

One of the first major inquiries conducted by the newly formed Railway Inspectorate was conducted by Captain Simmons of the Royal Engineers, and his report suggested that repeated flexing of the girder weakened it substantially. He examined the broken parts of the main girder, and confirmed that the girder had broken in two places, the first break occurring at the center. He tested the remaining girders by driving a locomotive across them, and found that they deflected by several inches under the moving load. He concluded that the design was flawed, and that the wrought iron trusses fixed to the girders did not reinforce the girders at all, which was a conclusion also reached by the jury at the inquest. Stephenson’s design had depended on the wrought iron trusses to strengthen the final structures, but they were anchored on the cast iron girders themselves, and so deformed with any load on the bridge. Others (especially Stephenson) argued that the train had derailed and hit the girder, the impact force causing it to fracture. However, eye witnesses maintained that the girder broke first and the fact that the locomotive remained on the track showed otherwise.

Publications

It is unfortunate that product failures are not more widely published in the academic literature or trade literature, partly because companies do not want to advertise their problems. However, it then denies others the opportunity to improve product design so as to prevent further accidents. However, a notable exception to the reluctance to publish is the journal Engineering Failure Analysis, which publishes case studies of a wide range of different products, failing under different circumstances. There are also an increasing number of textbooks becoming available.

Another notable publication, dealing with failures of buildings, bridges, and other structures, is the Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities,[1] which is published by the American Society of Civil Engineers, under the umbrella of its Technical Council on Forensic Engineering.[2]

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Do’a Setelah Menguburkan Mayit

Bismillaahirrohmanirrohiim.

Ternyata ada begitu banyak do’a yang telah diajarkan oleh Rosululloh –
shollallohu ‘alaihi wasallam– yang termaktub dalam Al-Quran & As-Sunnah/Hadits.

Salah satu ulama yang mengumpulkan do’a itu adalah Sa’id bin Ali bin Wahf Al-Qahtani dalam kitab Hisnul Muslim.

Berikut adalah salah satu do’a yang telah diajarkan oleh Rosululloh,yakni do’a setelah menguburkan mayit :

ïº?ï»�ï» ï»¬ï»¢ ïº?ï»?ï»�ﺮï»�ﻪ ïº?ï»�ï» ï»¬ï»¢ ïº�ïº�ïº�ﻪ

Alohummaghfirlahu allohumma tsabbit-hu

“Ya ALLOH,ampunilah dia (mayit), ya ALLOH,berilah dia keteguhan (dalam menjawab pertanyaan Munkar dan Nankir).”

Adalah Nabi Muhammad -shollallohu ‘alaihi wasallam- jika telah selesai menguburkan mayit,beliau berdiri sebentar di pinggir kuburan,lalu bersabda (yang artinya):

“Mintakanlah ampunan untuk saudara kalian ini & mohonkanlah ketetapan untuknya kepada ALLOH,karena,sekarang ini ia sedang ditanya.”

(Hadits Riwayat Abu Dawud 3/315 dan Al-Hakim)

Kamar 312, 19 Dzulhijjah 1432 H

Categories: Belajar Ilmu Agama, Fiqh, Salinan | Tags: , , | 4 Comments

(10112011) Kejutan Buat Adik Asrama

Bismillaahirrohmanirrohiim.
Pagi-pagi cek FB,eh ada sebuah nama yang berulangtahun hari ini. Nama itu tidak asing di ingatanku,meski namanya agak aneh,karena versi agak piye gitu. *gaya mbak maya mantan ketua SEA*

Saudara yang satu ini begitu fenomenal dan sensasional. Pencair suasana. *agak aneh bahasanya “pencair”*

Segera setelah membaca “today’s birthday” di FB itu,saya ke kamar beberapa adik saya untuk memberitaukan hal itu. Soalnya saya gak ada ide buat memberikan kejutan. Karena gak pernah punya inisiatif buat ‘ngerjain orang pas ulang tahun.
Beberapa ide bermunculan.

Karena idenya baru beberapa akhirnya saya SMS lah semua anggota usrah Umar bin Khattab (nama usroh tempat kami ber14 tinggal). Inti SMS itu (udah saya hapus soalnya)
Assalaamu’alaykum. Saudara2ku,salah seorang saudara kita Riza milad hari ini. Adakah yang punya ide untuk memberikannya kejutan di hari ini? Ditunggu yaa. 🙂

Trus ada beberapa balasan :
Ak gax tau mas…ini balasan ketua usroh

Setiap orng nyiram Riza z kak,….
Nnti sya pancing Riza kluar kamar…
N’ nyiram’y d deket tangga…
Biar mudah membersihkan’y kmbali…” *balasan yang sangat amat semangat

Akhirnya lagi-lagi nunggu saya pulang dari kampus saja lah kalau seperti itu. Lebih enak diskusi langsung.
Baru kesampaian pas sore hari sekitaran jam 5 kurang.

Wah,Rizanya di kamar ketua usroh.
Ada sasaran saya untuk menjadi pelaku utama “aksi” kali ini. “Aksi” edisi pertama.

Akhirnya saya tarik calon pelaku utama itu ke kamar lain menanyakan ide dia apa untuk hari ini. Saya bertanya ke dia karena sepertinya dia yang paling semangat kalau hal beginian. Nama panggilannya Cak Muh.

Cak Muh pun menjelaskan rencana yang sudah ia punyai.
Saya mengangguk-angguk.

Trus ke kamar sebelah untuk “berkonsolidasi” lagi. Intinya mereka (Sapto & Imam) setuju dan memberikan ide untuk membelikan sesuatu.
AKhirnya disepakati beli kue bolu murah meriah. *eh,bukan promosi nama rumah makan yaaa.

Trus waktu sudah menunjukkan jam setengah 6 saatnya bersiap-siap ke masjid untuk menunaikan ibadah sholat Maghrib dan ‘Isya.
Untuk sementara agenda seperti biasa. Sholat,mendengarkan KulTuM lalu pemberian mufrodat/kosakata bahasa arab.
Trus ngumpul per usroh/lorong.
Karena jadwal 2 minggu ini semuanya Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS),makanya saya bebaskan mereka untuk muroja’ah (mengulang hafalan Quran) atau melanjutkan bacaan Quran masing-masing atau membaca buku untuk persiapan ujian atau berdiskusi.

Trus saya dan beberapa dari mereka diskusi tanpa topik. Sampai akhirnya saya berdiskusi dengan Sapto dengan suara pelan,soalnya Riza duduk tidak jauh dari tempat kami diskusi.
Jadinya mau beli kuenya di Gamping atau di toko dekat asrama putri,kak?
Ya udah,yang deket aja. Kapan mau belinya?
Sudah ‘Isya Imam dan Sapto beli ke sana. Beli yang 20 ribuan aja ya,kak. Uangnya mana?
lho?“gumamku dalam hati.
“Ya udah,ni 20 ribu uang lebih patungan qurban kemarin.”
Ok,kak.

Kemudian adzan ‘Isya berkumandang dan sebagian ke kamar mandi untuk mengambil wudhu’ bagi yang batal dan sebagian lagi duduk di shaf depan.
Oh ya,pas diskusi Cak Muh dan teman sekamarnya,Johan izin balik ke asrama dulu.

Johan pun balik ketika menjelang iqomat.
Kak,ini kita nunggu Cak Muh pulang atau gimana?
*Cak Muh setiap hari ada urusan di kota*
Ya nunggu dia pulang aja,kan dia yang paham skenarionya.

Trus selesai sholat,dengerin KulTum lalu balik ke asrama.
Sesampainya di asrama.

Kak,Riza mana ya. Aku mau ngasihin kunci kamar untuk menjalankan aksi kita
wah,gak liat e.
Wah,gimana nie kak kalau dia udah di kamar duluan,bisa2 gagal rencana kita.
ya udah tunggu dulu aja.

Saya pun ke atas mau ke kamar.
Pas di lorong liat Riza bawa kunci kamar Johan.
“wah,berarti rencana sedang berjalan.”
Belum sempat ke depan pintu kamar saya memilih balik turun ke bawah,karena pas kebetulan gak ada orang lain di TKP.

Semuanya berjalan,saya makan dan begitu seperti biasanya.

Jam 9an
Kak,Riza nya udah tidur?
gak tau
Kemudian saya ketuk kamarnya Riza
Lagi ngapain,za?
Ngerjain tugas mas.
Ooo,setelah itu?
Mau tidur.
eh,cepat kali tidur,biasanya tidur jam 11an. Masih pagi ini.
dah ngantuk banget.

Akhirnya saya biarkan saja.
Kemudian,
bukannya kamu mau nge-print tugas.
besok pagi saja,udah ngantuk banget nie.

*keliatan banget kami “gak rela” target sasaran tidur cepat*

Saya pun balik ke k
amar untuk “mengumpulkan energi” buat belajar ujian besok pagi.

Baca-baca beberapa file.
Trus kedengaran suara Cak Muh pulang.

oh,bentar lagi nie mau dimulai.” gumam saya sambil deg-degan. gak jelas Harap maklum,soalnya ini kali pertama saya bertindak sebagai pelaku yang paling aktif dan juga inisiator. Sebelum-sebelumnya saya hanya yang diajak ikutan.

Saya sibukkan diri saya sampai diri saya dipanggil. Eh,gak sibuk dengan belajar juga sih. Lebih tepatnya saya sibuk meluapkan ketawa,sebelum saya tahan nanti pas “aksi”.
Akhirnya adegan bagian saya dipanggil dimulai.

Saya keluar.
ada apa ini?
uang saya hilang,kak” keluh Cak Muh
hilang di mana?
di sini” sambil menunjukkan kotak tabungannya.

Johan pun menjelaskan kronologisnya. Intinya dia meminta tolong Riza untuk ke kamarnya buat meletakkan kartu laundry.

Selanjutnya satu per satu dari adik-adik saya berkomentar.
Wah,gimana nie,Riza. Siapa aja selain kamu di kamar?
kalau kayak gini lorong kita udah mulai gak aman.
ya nie,kalau kayak gini gak bisa dibiarkan.

ya komentarnya khas para orang yang gregetan ada uang hilang.

Hilangnya berapa,Cak Muh?
50 ribu,kak. uang terakhir itu.

Trus suasana riuh rendah membahas hal itu.
Akhirnya kami sepakat buat menggeledah kamarnya Riza.

Kak,Riza diajak ke luar kamar.” kode cak muh kepada saya

Saya dan Imam (staf keamanan di lorong) masuk ke kamar menggeledah apa yang ada.
Kami berdua bingung mau menggeledah apa. *aktor yang gak berbakat*

Trus cak muh berkata,”mana HPmu,za. mana tau kamu SMS teman-temanmu buat ngasihin uang itu.”
ni periksa aja semuanya. aku SMS cuma dikit hari ini.” jawabnya dengan nada memelas.

Cak Muh kemudian merangkul Riza menghadap ke arah sawah. *samping usroh saya adalah pematang sawah. mantap gak tuh?

Saya masih stay di kamarnya Riza.
Trus Sapto datang menghampiri mereka berdua (Cak Muh dan Riza) dengan membawa ember berisi air.

*duaaarrr*
eh,itu bukan bunyi siraman air yaaa? trus apaan??

Riza pun bicara sesaat setelah disiram,
aku lupa kalau hari ini aku ulangtahun.“dengan logat khas Tegal

Perkataan yang sangat polos dan sontak bikin kami semua tertawa terpingkal-pingkal.
Sempet-sempetnya gitu lho pas disiram komentar seperti itu.

Trus hening sejenak. Sepertinya dia sudah mau menangis. Tapi berhasil ditahan.
Lalu saya memberikan sekotak kue yang sudah kami rencanakan dan beli tadi.

Trus,trus apalagi.

Saya gak bakat storytelling nie. Apa karena saya hanyut dengan kejadian tadi yaa?

Trus,intinya ya gitulah. Pasti udah pada kebayang kan?

Akhirnya Riza inisiatif bicara,
ni makan bareng-bareng yok kue-kuenya.


trus dimakan lah kue bolu yang sudah dipotong itu bersama-sama.
Ngasih kue,eh dimakan bareng-bareng juga. memang mahasiswa sejati.
hahahhahaha. *apaan deh.

Trus kami cerita-cerita mengenang kejadian yang baru saja kami jalani dari awal sampai akhir.

kami ngerencanain ini baru dari maghrib lho,za.”
“itu lho,komentar riza yang ‘aku lupa kalau hari ini aku ulangtahun’ paling gak nahan semuanya ketawa lagi.

dan berbagai komentar lainnya.
sayangnya gak sempat merekam soalnya pasti ketahuan. -begitu komentar Riza-

Last but not least,
Baarokalloh fiy ‘umrik,adekku Riza Awal Novanto.
Smoga akan ada banyak karya yang engkau ukir dan hasilkan untuk kemajuan Islam.
Tetap semangat!

Oh ya,dari “aksi” itu,Alhamdulillaah kami tidak memubadzirkan barang-barang lho. Paling cuma air. Gak kayak orang-orang lain. Ada yang lempar tepung lah. Telur yang masih bagus lah. bahkan sampai roti-roti pun dilempar.

Dan terakhir,dari kejadian yang baru sekitaran 1,5 jam ini saya semakin sadar kalau saya orangnya paling gak tegaan ngerjain orang.*
Bener,
Tadi saya lebih banyak nahan ketawanya dibanding akting.

Salut buat Cak Muh dan Wandi yang menjadi aktor malam ini.

Jazaakumulloh khoiroon buat semua saudara-saudaraku di Usroh Umar bin Khattab.
You make this night so beautiful.
*tolong dicek ya kalau ada penulisan/tata bahasa yang salah.*

Dan terima kasih juga kepada Bani yang sukses mengerjain Cak Muh sesaat setelah semua prosesi kejutan untuk Riza berakhir. =))

*

-jadi ingat pas jadi wakil ketua MPK yang kerjaannya menguji/menyeleksi calon anggota OSIS,kerjaan saya waktu itu bentak-bentak orang. yang udah ketemu saya pasti gak nyangka saya pernah jadi orang galak. ya wajarlah,wong teman-teman sekelas saya waktu SMA gak nyangka seorang Rama Rizana bisa bentak anak orang.-

Lorong Umar bin Khattab, 13 Dzulhijjah 1432 H

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